The Football Association announced late on Monday that Sturridge had returned to his club after scans on an injury sustained in Sunday’s 2-1 defeat to Manchester United.
Earlier on Monday, Roy Hodgson called up Tottenham midfielder Ryan Mason for the first time to replace Lallana, who suffered a groin injury in the loss to United.
An FA statement said: “Liverpool striker Daniel Sturridge has left the England squad and returned home to his club on Monday evening.
“This follows a scan on an injury that he sustained during Liverpool’s game against Manchester United on Sunday.
“The England medical team took the decision on Monday evening having assessed Daniel following the squad’s arrival at St. George’s Park on Monday afternoon.”
Sturridge was reported to have been suffering with a hip injury.
His absence increases the likelihood of Tottenham’s Harry Kane playing a significant role in the upcoming games against Lithuania and Italy – the first a Euro 2016 qualifier – after receiving his first call-up on Thursday.
And Kane has been joined in the squad by another uncapped Tottenham player in Mason, who was drafted in after Lallana was ruled out with Aston Villa midfielder Fabian Delph also struggling with illness.
Lallana was substituted at half-time during Sunday’s game at Anfield and did not meet with the rest of his international team-mates at St George’s Park on Monday afternoon.
“Tottenham Hotspur midfielder Ryan Mason has been drafted into Roy Hodgson’s England squad,” an earlier FA statement read.
“The inclusion of the 23-year-old follows the withdrawal of Liverpool’s Adam Lallana through injury.
“Mason, a regular for Spurs this season, has previously represented the Three Lions at U19 and U20 level.
“Lallana wasn’t the only absentee as the senior squad gathered at St. George’s Park on Monday afternoon in preparation for the forthcoming fixtures against Lithuania and Italy.
“Aston Villa’s Fabian Delph remained at home with a sickness bug but is expected to link up with the team later this week.”
Mason was loaned to League One Swindon last season, but he has played 29 times for Spurs this term and has scored two goals.
His last appearance in an England shirt came in 2011 when he played for the Under-20s against France.
Mason will train with his England team-mates at St George’s Park on Tuesday. Some members of the squad undertook a training session on Monday afternoon.
Danny Rose, Jack Butland and Robert Green were added to the squad on Saturday following the withdrawal of Fraser Forster and Luke Shaw.
England will face Lithuania in front of a 90,000 sell-out crowd on Friday.
Four days after the Euro 2016 qualifier, they will travel to Turin for a friendly against Italy.