The 32nd seed went 1 up after just three holes of the match at TPC Harding Park, and maintained that lead for 12 of the next 13 holes as he took his one-stroke advantage to the 18th.
However, Rose notched up a birdie when it mattered to level matters after 18, forcing the match to a 19th hole. It was here that Lahiri lost the lead for the first time in the contest, with Rose registering his second consecutive birdie to clinch victory after dropping his third shot just four feet from the hole.
The result means that Lahiri has now won one and lost one in pool play at the event after claiming an opening win over Ryan Palmer on Wednesday.
Asia's other stars had better luck on the day, with Thailand's Thongchai Jaidee and Hideki Matsuyama both among the winners on the day.
Jaidee notched up his first win of the week courtesy of a 3&1 victory over Jim Furyk. The Thai ace took control of the match early on, racing out to 4 up after four holes. That lead would grow to 5 up after six holes.
Furyk would not go down without a fight though, and three birdies in six holes from the American saw Jaidee's lead cut to two as the players headed for the 17th. However, Furyk could not keep up the pace, with a bogey at the 17th handing Jaidee the victory.
Having claimed a 5&4 victory over Alexander Lévy on the opening day, Matsuyama continued his good form as he saw off the challenge of Joost Luiten.
It was Luiten, who registered 18 pars on the day, who held the early advantage, as bogeys on the 1st and 3rd holes from Matsuyama saw the Dutchman go 2 up and the score remained that way until the 14th hole.
Matsuyama kicked into life in the closing stages, registering three birdies on the trot from the 14th to 16th as he turned the match around to take a one stroke advantage heading into the penultimate hole. A birdie at the 18th sealed the victory for Matsuyama who looks well placed to secure a spot in the knockout stage of the competition.