Su's posted a time of 9.99s in a race won by American Tyson Gay in 9.88.
However, the 25-year-old's performance was not the first time an Asian athlete notched a sub-10 second time, after Qatar's Nigerian-born Femi Ogunode clocked 9.93 at the Asian Games in South Korea last year.
Ogunode switched allegiances to the Gulf state in 2009 and became a naturalised citizen the following year.
Japanese teenager Yoshidie Kiryu ran a 9.87 in Texas in March this year, although the time was wind-assisted and wasn't granted official status.
"I am so proud for my result. I can write my name into history now and will work harder and run faster," Su told Xinhua.
"This is definitely a huge boost for me."
The previous best by an Asian-born athlete was a time of 10-seconds flat set by Su's compatriot Zhang Peimeng at the 2013 World Championships in Moscow.
"In Moscow, Zhang Peimeng was ranked ninth with 10 seconds, which made me feel that we are very close to entering the top eight and beating 10 seconds," Su added.
"I hope in this year's world championships, I can work some miracles for my country in 100m and 4x100m relay."