The Brazil skipper was shown a straight red card in his side's 1-0 defeat after kicking a ball at Colombia's Pablo Armero in frustration after the final whistle, before appearing to head-butt another player who confronted him for doing so.
The 23-year-old will miss Brazil's final group stage match against Venezuela on Sunday, but could also miss out on later games should Brazil reach the knockout stages. Having picked up a yellow earlier in the match, his second of the tournament, he would have missed the weekend's fixture anyway.
The South American Football Confederation will hold a hearing on Friday in which it will be decided whether or not to extend the Barcelona forward's suspension.
Colombia's Carlos Bacca, who came on as a second-half substitute, was also sent off for a retaliatory shove.