The pair, seeded three and four respectively, have produced some Australian Open classics in the past, and a possible repeat is a mouthwatering prospect.
However, to get there both men will have to undergo stern tests, with Nadal set for a tricky opener against Mikhail Younzhny and a possible fourth round clash with Lukas Rasol, who famously eliminated him at Wimbledon in 2012. Meanwhile, Federer could face Andy Murray in the quarter-finals, having beaten the Scot at the same stage last year. The Swiss begins his campaign against Yen-Hsun Lu.
Top seed Novak Djokovic will face a qualifier first up, and defending champion Stan Warwinka will begin his defence against Marsel Ilhan of Turkey.
Fifth seed Kei Nishikori will face Niclos Almagro of Spain in his opening match in Melbourne.
Go Soeda of Japan will face a qualifier, Ze Zhang of China will meet Australian Lleyton Hewitt while Japan's Tatsuma Ito meets Martin Klizan.