The Czech, ranked 14 in the world, overcame two delays to delight the home supporters who had braved the weather as she came from behind to beat the German 2-6 6-1 6-3.
“It was my first match on clay so it took me while to get used to it,” she said.
“The first set was bad, I was freezing, could not move, conditions were perfect for my opponent. She was defending and running very well.”
Pliskova added on the official WTA website: “It is tough to play in such a cold and rain, but I don’t complain, it was the same for both of us.
“The court was in perfect condition, just the rain was too strong.”
The 23-year-old will next face Tsvetana Pironkova after the Bulgarian got through with little trouble against qualifier Olga Govortsova 7-5 6-1.
Those supporters who had stayed out on Centre Court later saw Plzen’s Barbora Zahlavova Strycova defeat American Madison Brengle 7-6 (7/5) 6-3.
Elsewhere, number seven seed Belinda Bencic of Switzerland lost to Croatian Ana Konjuh.