The defending champion will face Lucie Safarova, who is ranked 13th, after beating Sam Stosur 6-3, 6-4 in the third round.
While Sharapova holds a 4-1 head-to-head advantage over Safarova, the world number two clearly remembers how close their last meeting at the 2014 Porsche Tennis Grand Prix in Stuttgart was.
Sharapova was forced to dig deep as she managed to triumph over Safarova 7-6 (5), 6-7 (5), 7-6 (2).
"We haven't played in a while," Sharapova told reporters after beating Stosur. "The last time was a really tough match in Stuttgart last year where she was serving for the match. I know I have a tough one ahead of me, and lefties are always tricky. It will be my first one of the tournament. I will definitely need to be ready against her.
"But I know what I have to do. I just have to get it done."
Sharapova was also pleased to have extended her winning streak at Roland Garros to 10 games after beating Stosur.
"Just getting the job done. The conditions in the first match and today have been quite tough," she said. "And in those moments it's always tough to really assess the level, because as much as you want to improve and find some sort of perfection, you never quite know where the direction will be. Especially with the spin of my opponent today, I just had to be steady and consistent, and I did that quite well."