Caceres, 27, sustained a fractured left ankle in a training session on Sunday and could be out for three months, while Mattiello, on loan at Chievo, faces six months out of the game after suffering a fractured tibia and fibula in their draw with Roma.
Caceres, who has scored one goal in 10 league appearances for Juve this season, will have surgery on Monday.
A statement from Juventus read: “Martin Caceres fractured a bone in his left ankle.
“The recovery time will be evaluated once his surgery is completed in Turin on Monday.”
Mattiello, 19, who joined Chievo on loan in January, sustained the horrific injury after a tackle from Roma’s Radja Nainggolan during Sunday’s goalless draw in Verona.
A statement from Chievo said: “The two-hour surgery went well and Matiello will remain under observation in hospital.”