The 24-year-old has been a fixture for Uzbek giants Bunyodkor since making his debut there in 2010 and has represented the national side since 2013, scoring six times in 22 appearances.
El Jaish finished third in the recently completed Qatar Stars League and have secured a spot in the 2016 edition of the AFC Champions League.
"Rashidov has an eye for goals. Everybody saw his potential at the last Asian Cup in Australia," said El Jaish's Yousef Dezmal.
"He'll be a great addition to our club and our [head] coach Sabri Lamouchi has a lot of confidence in him."