Anthony's career-high total was also the most points registered in one game by a Knicks player and the highest tally ever netted by a player at Madison Square Garden.
Al Jefferson led the way for the Bobcats with 25 points.
The Toronto Raptors remain 2.5 games clear at the top of the Atlantic Division following a 104-95 win over the Philadelphia 76ers.
DeMar DeRozan scored 34 points for the Canadian outfit, who pulled away in the fourth quarter after a tight contest.
The Brooklyn Nets scored 39 points in the second quarter as they claimed a narrow 107-106 victory over the Dallas Mavericks.
The Nets have now won four straight as they keep the pressure on Toronto in the standings.
The Oklahoma City Thunder did not appear to miss star man Kevin Durant as they eased to a 101-83 win against the Boston Celtics.
A 27-13 third quarter helped the Northwest leaders open up a lead which the Celtics could not claw back.
Blake Griffin recorded 26 points and 13 rebounds as the Los Angeles Clippers defeated the Chicago Bulls 112-95.
Carlos Boozer's 22 points led the Bulls as they saw a three-game winning streak ended.
The San Antonio Spurs extended their lead at the top of the Southwest Division to five games with a 105-79 win over the Atlanta Hawks.
Boris Diaw poured in 21 points as the Spurs took advantage of nearest challengers the Houston Rockets' 88-87 defeat to the Memphis Grizzlies.
Chandler Parsons poured in 34 points but it was not enough as Memphis claimed their first win against a division rival this season.
Tobias Harris grabbed a career-high 20 rebounds while putting up 28 points as the Orlando Magic overcame the Los Angeles Lakers 114-105, while the Washington Wizards toppled the Phoenix Suns 101-95.
Eric Gordon's lay-up with less than two seconds remaining handed the New Orleans Pelicans a 103-101 victory over the Detroit Pistons, and the Cleveland Cavaliers eased to a 93-78 triumph over the Milwaukee Bucks.
Kevin Martin's basket with 8.4 seconds remaining saw the Minnesota Timberwolves to a 121-120 win over the Golden State Warriors, while Paul George scored eight points in overtime as the Indiana Pacers beat the Sacramento Kings 116-111.