Manning threw for 400 yards and two touchdowns, and set up four field goals by Matt Prater in the AFC Championship game.
His efforts earned the Broncos a clash with either the San Francisco 49ers or the Seattle Seahawks in NFL's showpiece event on February 2 at the MetLife Stadium.
It will be Manning's third Super Bowl with his record standing at one win and a loss with the Indianapolis Colts, and he will attempt to become the only quarterback to win a ring with two separate teams.
Manning's future in the game was in serious doubt after he was forced to miss the entire 2011 season after undergoing multiple neck surgeries.
But the 37-year-old led the two touchdown drives, the second of which propelled the Broncos into a 20-3 lead as they sealed their spot in the NFL title game for the first time since 1998.
Manning still trails Patriots quarter-back and friend Tom Brady 5-10 in head-to-head meetings although it is the veteran Broncos man who holds a 2-1 lead in AFC Championship games.
The Patriots had some late success with Brady throwing for 277 yards, but most of that came when they were trailing by a distance and they finished their season 13-5.