Teaming up with the experienced American Lisa Raymond, Robson was able to celebrate a convincing 6-3 6-1 victory over Francesca Schiavone and Sam Stosur - both of whom have won Grand Slam singles titles.
Robson and Raymond, a former world number one in doubles, reached the final of the Sony Open in Miami earlier in the season and such form suggests they could go deep into the draw in SW19.
While Robson progressed to round two, her compatriots Anne Keothavong and Johanna Konta suffered an expected defeat.
The duo had been given arguably the toughest first-round draw, coming out alongside the top seeds, Sara Errani and Roberta Vinci.
The Italians - the reigning Australian and US Open champions - proved too good for the home hopes and eased to a 6-3 6-1 victory.
Heather Watson was another casualty, suffering a crushing first-round defeat with her Bosnian partner Mervana Jugic-Salkic.
The pair lost 6-2 6-0 to 11th seeds Cara Black and Marina Erakovic - the latter being a regular doubles partner of Watson in the past.
In the men's event, Jamie Baker and teenager Kyle Edmund were beaten 6-4 7-5 6-2 and the Spanish-Italian pairing of David Marrero and Andreas Seppi.