With Rafael Nadal having gone home on Monday, Tsonga had to walk out of his second-round clash with Ernests Gulbis after suffering problems with his knee and wrist.
Having taken the first set untroubled 6-3, Tsonga started to wilt and lost the next two by that scoreline before shaking hands with his Latvian opponent and the umpire.
Earlier, the 2002 Wimbledon champion Lleyton Hewitt was felled by a new crowd favourite on Wednesday as Dustin Brown saw off the Australian in four sets on Court Two.
Hewitt has always been able to count on the backing of the All England Club crowd, but he encountered a man with no fear on Wednesday.
The 28-year-old is an unmistakable figure owing to his long dreadlocks and has a game that belies his world ranking of 189.
His story is an interesting one with a German-Jamaican heritage, but his tennis was the talking point today as he won 6-4 6-4 6-7 (7/3) 6-2.
"I'm not normally the type of guy to cry, I don't know what happened. I'm playing Lleyton Hewitt, a guy you're watching when you're growing up," he said.
"I've won a lot of matches already playing qualies (qualifiers) and a very good first round and that really helped me with my confidence to go into the match believing I could do it."
Fernando Verdasco needed just three sets to beat Julien Benneteau in a low-key opener on Court One - the Spaniard won 7-6 (7/1) 7-6 (7/4) 6-1, while Nicolas Almagro prevailed in four sets against Guillaume Rufin.
Like Tsonga, John Isner walked out of his match with Adrian Mannarino injured, while Marin Cilic did not even make his clash with Kenny De Schepper because of knee trouble.
Rafael Nadal's conqueror Steve Darcis also had to forfeit his match-up with Lukasz Kobot because of a shoulder problem, with a busy day in the treatment room added to when Radek Stepanek quit against Jerzy Janowicz.
Andy Murray took the first set in his meeting with Yen-Hsun Lu on Court One, while any fans feeling short-changed by all the absentees could look forward to the evening appearance of seven-time champion Roger Federer against Sergiy Stakhovsky.