Robson has never won a main-draw match at Roland Garros while Wozniacki is a former world number one who has made at least the third round for the past five years.
But so poor has the Dane's form been - this was her first win in six matches - that it seemed an ideal opportunity for a player who loves to take scalps at the grand slams.
Robson has beaten Kim Clijsters, Li Na and Petra Kvitova during the last two slams but perhaps the fact there was expectation on her shoulders this time did not help and she went down 6-3 6-2 in an hour and 11 minutes.
The 19-year-old insisted the extra expectation had not unduly affected her, saying: "She's always capable of playing a really good tournament.
"She's always a tough person to play. You have to really beat her. She won't give you many unforced errors. So I knew it was going to be a tough match. I just made too many mistakes.
"I think Caroline played really well and smart. She definitely knew what she wanted to do on court and I just generally wasn't able to get into the match. My shots just weren't firing as well as they usually are today [Monday]. It's disappointing."
There was also extra pressure on Robson because of the absence of the injured Andy Murray, and the teenager hinted she had not enjoyed the attention.
"Really? I hadn't noticed," she said with a sarcastic smile.
"It's been interesting. Definitely a few more people at my practices the last couple of days, but I've just tried to get on with it really."
Although Wozniacki is on the slide, she is still ranked 10th in the world and her strengths of excellent movement and a steady game were always likely to make things difficult for Robson.
The 19-year-old is the polar opposite of her opponent, relying on huge shots and liable to make too many unforced errors.
Robson went into the match having performed well on the clay, beating Agnieszka Radwanska and Venus Williams, and she had two chances to break in the third game of the match but twice netted backhands.
It would be the last time Robson was ahead as two double faults gave Wozniacki a break in the next game and, although the Londoner broke straight back, she then promptly gave her serve away again.
Robson was simply being too erratic and Wozniacki was beginning to find her form and confidence, serving out the set and then putting pressure on the Briton's serve once more.
Robson held on in a long first game of the second set but Wozniacki took her next opportunity and then made it four games in a row.
The 10th seed was playing a smart match, not giving Robson much of the pace she loves, and the teenager was not playing well enough to impose herself.
"You're playing into her hands," she yelled midway through the first set, and it was impossible to disagree.
Robson's only real bright spot in the second set was when she fought back from 40-0 at 4-1 with five straight points on the Wozniacki serve.
Sometimes matches turn around on such moments, but not this one. Wozniacki broke again to leave herself serving for the match, and Robson had no answer.
The 19-year-old's defeat means it falls to either Heather Watson or Elena Baltacha, who both play on Tuesday, to try to secure Britain's first win of the tournament.
The Lawn Tennis Association's head of women's tennis, Iain Bates, was guiding Robson here along with adidas coach Sven Groeneveld, who took a back seat as he also works with Wozniacki.
Whoever Robson does appoint next, it seems certain that improving the teenager's consistency without blunting her weapons will be the key to getting the best out of the world number 35.
"It's something that I'm working on," said Robson of cutting down her errors.
"I think generally over the past couple of weeks everything has been improving little by little. I'm in the process of changing my serve, so it was never going to be perfect today. It's just something that I'm going to have to keep working on."
Wozniacki urged patience with Robson, saying: "I think definitely experience means a lot.
"I feel like I have been on the tour for a very long time now and got to play a lot of matches. I know where I stand. I know how I play my best. Sometimes it's not as easy to execute as it is in your head.
"She's only 19. She's so young. I know I'm only 22, but it's still three years older. I think it means a lot."