Draper took over at the head of British tennis' governing body in 2006 after fulfilling the same role at Sport England and has endured mixed fortunes in his seven-year reign.
The success of Andy Murray has provided the greatest moments for the sport in this country in more than 70 years while some progress has been made in other areas.
But Draper has also been heavily criticised for continued failures at elite level despite record levels of income and in December tennis had £10million of funding withheld by Sport England due to falling participation figures.
Draper has faced calls for his resignation from critics inside and outside the sport but the LTA were keen to stress the decision was taken solely by the chief executive, who feels it is the right time to stand down.
Draper said: "It has been a huge honour to serve the sport that I love so much and to play my part in leading British tennis.
"I have been very lucky to work with fantastic people both at the LTA and across the wider tennis community, and I would like to thank them all for their passion, commitment and hard work.
"As a result, the sport is entering a very exciting phase, and now is the right time for me to hand over the baton to a new leader who can build on what has been achieved in recent years and take British tennis to new levels."
Critics will note that news of Draper's departure comes only three months after David Gregson was appointed as independent chairman of the LTA board.
Gregson said: "Roger has made a significant contribution to the development of British tennis and (LTA president) Peter Bretherton and I would like to thank him for all his hard work in driving these changes.
"His passion and enthusiasm for the sport will be much missed. Roger will be staying on as CEO until the end of September, and we shall now start the process to appoint his successor."
Draper oversaw the introduction of the Blueprint for British tennis in 2006 setting out what he wanted to achieve during his tenure.
The Blueprint began: "Our new vision for British tennis is 'Winning'..." and set the aim of British players winning titles at grand slam, ATP and WTA level as well as, ultimately, the Davis Cup and Fed Cup.
The most obvious improvement of the last seven years has been in the women's game, with Elena Baltacha, Anne Keothavong, Heather Watson and Laura Robson all reaching the top 50.
When Draper joined the LTA, there were no British women in the top 100, and one of his key aims was to put the women's programme on an equal footing with the men's.
The rise of 20-year-old Watson and Robson, 19, has been particularly exciting, with Watson winning WTA titles in singles and doubles and Robson reaching the fourth round of the US Open last year.
However, both players honed their skills outside the LTA system - Watson moved from her home in Guernsey to the renowned Nick Bolletieri academy in Florida aged 12.
The LTA can also claim little input in the career of Murray and his stellar achievements do not mask the clear failures in the elite men's game in Britain.
The situation has considerably worsened under Draper, with Murray the only British man in the top 200 in the singles rankings, while in 2009 there was the humiliation of Davis Cup defeat by Lithuania in the depths of Europe/Africa Zone Group II.
The main glimmer of hope is the progress of the likes of teenagers Oli Golding, Liam Broady and Kyle Edmund, all of whom had very successful junior careers and have taken encouraging steps in the senior game, but there are no guarantees.
Golding praised Draper on hearing the news, saying on Twitter: "Sad to hear roger is departing the lta. Really think he has done a good job and will leave British tennis heading in the right direction!"
Draper has certainly modernised the LTA but the stick with which his critics have continually beaten him is the sheer cost of the modest gains.
Last year the LTA invested £73.2million, just over half of which came from Wimbledon profits, while there were more unwanted headlines for Draper in December when it was revealed his earnings for the year were £640,000.
Participation had been a source of good news for Draper but that, too, has become more challenging, with Sport England's decision to withhold money coming because the number of people playing the sport once a week has decreased by 10% since 2008.
The LTA insist other participation measures, including the number of juniors playing, tell a much more positive story, but what is certain is Draper will leave with much work still to be done if the vision he set out in 2006 is to be realised.