The Czech fourth seed won the first set but her opponent rallied to take the match to a decider.
Arvidsson failed to serve out the match at 5-3 but the Swede broke her world number 18 ranked opponent again in the 12th game to seal a 3-6 6-2 7-5 win.
She will face another Czech in the next round after Lucie Hradecka recorded a 6-3 7-6 (7/5) victory over Spain's Silvia Soler-Espinosa.
Holland's Kiki Bertens broke her duck against Mona Barthel with a 7-6 (7/3) 1-6 6-1 triumph. The 20-year-old had not won a set against the German in their three previous contests.