The twins won their 12th Grand Slam title as a team to surpass Mark Woodforde and Todd Woodbridge's tally of 11.
Their victory over Leander Paes and Radek Stepanek also sees them join John Newcombe and Tony Roche in the all-time list. Both pairs now sit on 12.
Speaking about the feat, Mike said: "It's unbeliveable. It's not going to sink in for a long time.
"The 'Woodies', who we were tied with, we idolised those guys."
The Bryans beat the Indian-Czech pairing 6-3 6-4 on the Arthur Ashe Stadium to complete the feat.
The contest was a repeat of Australian Open final, won by Paes and Stepanek, but this time the result was different - and rarely in the doubt.
The 34-year-olds broke once in each set and did not have to face a single break point.
It was the Americans' fourth US Open title in all, the duo having also won in 2005, 2008 and 2010.