The third seed needed only 58 minutes to defeat the 21-year-old college champion 6-1 6-1 and has now dropped only seven games in three matches at Flushing Meadows.
Burdette came into the tournament as a wild card ranked only 252nd in the world so perhaps it was not surprising she did not present more of a challenge to the French Open champion.
Sharapova won the opening two games and then, after Burdette held serve for the only time in the match, the Russian reeled off the next four.
Sharapova's power was simply too much for the American and her tally of two winners compared to her opponent's 17 rather told the story of the match.
Sharapova will now hope to break something of a hoodoo having not been past the fourth round at Flushing Meadows since winning the title six years ago.