Organisers announced the news on Sunday, the eve of the tournament's opening day.
Mayer, the 20th seed, had been scheduled to play Taiwan's Lu Yen-Hsun in the first round at Melbourne Park.
His place in the draw has been taken by 'lucky loser' Rik de Voest, of South Africa. He had been beaten in the final round of qualifying on Saturday.
No additional seed has been announced, so De Voest will simply slot into Mayer's place in the draw and face Lu.