The British number one, under the watchful eye of new coach Ivan Lendl this week, took control of the final with a run of nine straight games en route to a 6-1 6-3 triumph.
Dolgopolov, who seemed to be struggling with a groin problem towards the end of the first set, rallied from 4-0 down in the second set to get back to 4-3, but Murray then raised his game again to close out the match.
The world number four set the tone with a solid opening game, sealing it with an ace.
Dolgopolov swiftly levelled and looked set to provide a test for his opponent - he reeled off superb forehand and backhand winners in his first service game - but from then on it was one-way traffic.
Murray moved to 30-0 courtesy of a net cord en route to another comfortable hold, before putting daylight between himself and his opponent with the first break of the match on his third break point.
And the Scot was not about to relinquish the advantage, holding serve to love before securing a second break in game six - when Dolgopolov seemed troubled by a groin injury.
That gave Murray the chance to serve for the set, and - after saving two break points - he duly got over the line.
His dominance continued into the second set, with the world number 15 having no answer to the Australian Open runner-up.
Murray, who saw off Dolgopolov in the quarter-finals on his way to the final at Melbourne Park last year, raced into a 4-0 lead in the second set with his mix of aggressive and intricate play.
Dolgopolov showed great spirit to claw his way back into the second set, getting himself on the board in game five and then stunning the Briton by claiming a break of his own with a fierce forehand.
He held again - after six deuces and saving two more break points - to close to within a game of Murray, but that was as good as the mini resurgence got for Dolgopolov as the Scot moved up a gear to finish things off.
Murray was thrilled by his victory, which was ideal preparation for the Australian Open.
He told BBC Radio Five Live's Sportsweek programme: "It's a very good start to the year.
"I started the match well, got a quick break early.
"I kept my foot on the gas and kept going for it and kept the pressure on.
"I managed to get a break early in the second set so I am really happy with the way I played and the way I stayed on top when I got the initiative."
Dolgopolov admitted he was troubled by the injury, and told atpworldtour.com: "I couldn't move much on my right leg. It was tough to go right and push from it.
"I just tried to do my best and still stay on the court because the stadium was full and you don't want to pull out of something like that."
Max Mirnyi of Belarus and Canada's Daniel Nestor won the men's doubles title, the top seeds beating second seeds Jurgen Melzer and Philipp Petzschner 6-1 6-2 in the final.