Czech player Berdych was defeated in both sets on tie-breaks by his Croatian opponent.
Karlovic won 7-6 (9/7) 7-6 (7/4) to reach the second round where he will be joined by Gael Monfils.
The Frenchman was a comfortable winner against Colombian Santiago Giraldo.
Monfils won the first set 7/1 on the tie-break before dominating the second set which he won 6-2.
Eighth seed Fernando Verdasco won in straight sets against Italy's Filippo Volandri.
Verdasco won the first set 6-3 and took the next by the same scoreline to win the match in just over an hour.
Poland's Lukasz Kubot won his first round match with Spaniard Daniel Gimeno-Traver 6-4 6-3.