The British number one proved no match for her German opponent who broke the 19-year-old seven times on her way to a 6-1 6-2 victory.
Robson had gone into the match on the back of a battling first round win over Czech world number 32 Klara Zakopalova.
But Kerber, a two-time grand slam semi-finalist who reached the final of the Japan Open in Tokyo last week, proved a much sterner test.
The German did not allow Robson a single break point opportunity in the first set and, although she broke twice in the second, Robson's own serve let her down too often.
Serena Williams struggled to dispatch former French Open champion Francesca Schiavone, saving six break points en route to a gruelling 6-4 7-5 win.
Sixth seed Caroline Wozniacki eased past Monica Niculescu of Romania 6-3 6-1 and other women's seeds to progress were Sloane Stephens, Roberta Vinci, Petra Kvitova, Sabine Lisicki and Carla Suarez Navarro.
In late women's action, fourth seed and home favourite Li Na needed just 43 minutes to dispatch Bojana Jovanovski of Serbia 6-0 6-1.