After a slow start in temperatures nudging 35 degrees, the world number two made short work of Dushevina to send a strong warning to her challengers that she is ready to add to her Wimbledon title from 2011.
Dushevina made the perfect start by holding serve and breaking Kvitova for a 2-0 lead, but after acclimatising to the heat, the Czech player clicked into gear.
Kvitova did not drop a game for the rest of the match as she easily pushed Dushevina around the court and capitalised on her loose play.
When the Russian did find a gap, Kvitova's long reach closed it, notably as she lunged seemingly halfway across the court to return a volley to break and take a 3-0 lead in the second set.
It must have been heartbreaking for Dushevina, who only won six points in the remainder of the match, but it was the opening victory her opponent clearly wanted.
"After a slow start it was fine," Kvitova said. "But I can improve my serve for sure.
"The score looks easy but it wasn't, the games were very close and I am glad I am through."
The 21-year-old will meet Spaniard Carla Suarez Navarro in the second round.