Rutherford, who won gold in London last year on the same night as Jessica Ennis-Hill and Mo Farah, missed returning to the Olympic Stadium for the Sainsbury's Anniversary Games at the weekend because he had not recovered fully from a hamstring injury.
But British Athletics performance director Neil Black on Tuesday announced the 26-year-old had passed a series of tests and would be heading to Moscow for the championships, which begin on August 10.
Black said: "Greg has shown a remarkable level of recovery during a short space of time, something he has shown an aptitude for throughout his athletics career.
"Following the fitness tests and his record of being able to produce a quality performance off minimal build up, I am pleased to confirm his place in the GB & NI team.
"He'll continue to work closely with the support staff to maximise every additional moment in between now and the 14th of August."
Rutherford's selection means Chris Tomlinson, with whom he jointly holds the British record of 8.35 metres, misses out on the World Championships.
Because neither British man has achieved the 'A' standard of 8.25m this season, only one could be selected.
Tomlinson did compete at the Olympic Stadium on Sunday but failed to get close to the required distance, managing only 7.99m.
He still felt he had done enough to be given the nod, saying afterwards: "I am in better shape at the moment, I am jumping well.
"I think on current form, on current shape, I'd be on the team. But obviously he's (Rutherford) got that (Olympic title) and that has to be taken into
"I've been in all the finals since 2008, I am always there or thereabouts."
Ennis-Hill was named in the original team but has not yet announced whether she will compete in Moscow after only recently recovering from Achilles problems.
The 27-year-old from Sheffield competed in the hurdles and the long jump on Sunday but was some way below her best in both.
She sounded a cautious note about her Moscow prospects, saying: "I don't want to go and not be ready and not be competitive. I've got more to lose than to gain really.
''I want to go there and be a contender for a gold medal, that's the thought process.''