Tries from Lua Lokotui and Fetu'u Vainikolo and 11 points from the boot of Fangatapu Apikotoa earned Tonga a memorable win at Pittodrie.
Greig Laidlaw kicked five penalties for Scotland, who were blunt in attack, as Robinson's men slumped to a third defeat of the autumn following losses to New Zealand and South Africa.
Scotland, whitewashed in the RBS 6 Nations, have now lost 10 of their past 13 Tests.
Asked about his own future, Robinson said: "We'll look at everything."
He added: "That was a totally unacceptable performance we've witnessed today [Saturday].
"From my side I'm very angry. There will be consequences because of this performance. I won't go through yet what those will be.
"It reflects on me."
The 2011-12 season also featured early elimination from the World Cup for the first time, but the campaign finished on a high with wins in Australia, Fiji and Samoa which appeared to revive Scotland's fortunes and Robinson's faith in his side.
Robinson is under contract until the 2015 World Cup, when Scotland will be among the third seeds after falling outside the world's top eight ahead of next month's draw.
Robinson will meet with Scottish Rugby Union chief executive Mark Dodson, but refused to reveal when.
Asked again to comment on his position, Robinson said: "I've got a contract to 2015, but from the performance we've seen today, and rightly so, there needs to be consequences for what happened.
"I'll be at the forefront of those discussions."
It was an attritional affair on a narrow pitch which limited space and, once again, Scotland's passing lacked the accuracy required as the ball hit the floor with alarming regularity.
Scotland lacked ideas to overcome their physical opponents, who had three players sin-binned but were deserved winners as the hosts tasted defeat in Aberdeen for the first time. If he does stay on, Robinson will next enter his fourth Six Nations, beginning with the Calcutta Cup at Twickenham, needing a remarkable turnaround to avoid another abject spring showing.
The challenge posed by Tonga was not a surprise to Robinson.
He added: "We knew that was going to be a tough game. They tackled well; they dominated the tackle contest.
"The penalty count was high so it became a disjointed game. We got over the line twice with a maul, but you've got to get the ball down.
"You've got to be able to control the scoreboard in these games. Unfortunately it became a fight and a mess. We weren't very good in the mess."
Scotland had opportunities and Robinson refused to criticise the decisions of captain Kelly Brown to spurn penalty kicks at goal in order to heap pressure on the Tonga line.
He did, though, lament the inability to convert the pressure into points.
"When we get over the line, we've got to score," he said.
"It's about executing under pressure. We didn't do that."
Flanker Brown said: "It's about taking our chances. That's something I'll be looking at as the captain.
"The coaches aren't out there on the pitch; it's up to the players. We have spoken already that we need to look inside ourselves and we all need to look for answers."
While Scotland's players were crestfallen and defeat at the end, Tonga's were triumphant.
Tonga coach Mana Otai said: "The boys wrote a bit of history for themselves today.
"Last year we beat the French; back in 1973 Tonga beat the Wallabies - occasions we don't forget easily."
Tonga had three players sin-binned, including two in the final 11 minutes.
On the sin-binnings, Otai said: "I was worried. If you are one man down you are naturally at a disadvantage."
Captain Nili Latu was among the players shown a yellow card, admitting his rush of blood to the head in leaping on to a maul might have proved costly, while praising his team-mates for their defensive resilience.
"We were so desperate to win today and the boys showed a great effort," Latu added.
"We played our heart out today for our nation. It's going to make a huge difference.
"Rugby is the soul of Tonga and it's going to bring our people together."