The 24-year-old was arrested at 3am on Saturday in Weybridge following his club side Harlequins' 21-10 defeat by Toulouse at the Stoop.
He was released without charge and paid a fixed penalty fine.
A Surrey Police statement read: "Surrey Police were called to the Noir Bar in Heath Road, Weybridge at around 3am on the morning of Saturday 10 December following reports of a disturbance involving two groups of men.
"Officers attended the scene and ensured those present were dispersed. A man in his 20s was arrested on suspicion of being drunk and disorderly. He was taken into custody and later issued with a fixed penalty notice."
Care was reprimanded by Stuart Lancaster, head of England's interim coaching team, in a phone conversation on Monday. The pair have known each other since Care's days in the Leeds academy.
Care spoke with Harlequins director of rugby Conor O'Shea and the club say the matter will be dealt with internally.
Care, who missed England's World Cup campaign through injury, told The Daily Telegraph: "It was a silly thing to do - I accept that and apologise completely.
"It was a tough game and I was out with the team and friends but should have remembered that as a professional player I am on duty throughout the season and need to set a better example to the fans."
Care added that he accepted the police fine and would co-operate with Quins' own disciplinary process.
Care, who has 24 England caps, joined Quins from Leeds in 2006.