Rogers rode for Team Sky for two years and was a team-mate of Sir Bradley Wiggins at the 2012 Tour de France.
The 33-year-old three-time Road World Championships time-trial gold medal winner joined Tinkoff-Saxo at the end of the 2012 season and supported Alberto Contador at the 2013 Tour de France.
A statement from cycling's world governing body read: "The UCI advised Australian rider Michael Rogers that he is provisionally suspended. The decision to provisionally suspend this rider was made in response to a report from the WADA-accredited laboratory in Tokyo indicating an adverse analytical finding of clenbuterol in a urine sample collected from him in a test during the Japan Cup Cycle Road Race on October 20, 2013.
"The provisional suspension of Mr Michael Rogers remains in force until a hearing panel convened by his national federation determines whether he has committed an anti-doping rule violation under Article 21 of the UCI Anti-Doping Rules.
"Mr Rogers has the right to request and attend the analysis of his B sample.
"Under the World Anti-Doping Code and the UCI Anti-Doping Rules, the UCI is unable to provide any additional information at this time."