The Coatbridge fighter picked up the injury in the second round of his controversial title defence against the Mexican.
It seemed to most inside the arena that Beltran, who had Burns on the floor in the eighth, had clearly won the fight but one judge gave Burns the verdict by 115-112, another gave it to Beltran by 115-113 with the third judge scoring it 114 each.
His promoter Eddie Hearn praised Burns' courage in the post-fight press conference and tweeted in the early hours of the morning: "With Ricky in hospital -it's not good-clean break to jaw from 2nd round - staying in hospital and operation tomorrow."
The tweet included a picture of what appeared to be an X-ray of Burns' injury.
Burns had earlier tweeted: "Jaw defo broken, in agony here.
"Honestly dont know how I managed to get through that fight.
"Thanks to every1 for their support tonight."
Hearn tweeted an update, saying: "Morning all..long night. Ricky is now in surgery to have a titanium plate in his jaw.
"Lots of tweets about the decision, it's difficult for me to score the fight with an emotional attachment, my gut feeling when I got in the ring was the Beltran had it after a close fight.
"I'm not sure how Ricky continued for 10 rounds with an injury like that and right now my concerns are for him and making sure he is ok."
Beltran was emotional but articulate afterwards and strongly accused people in the sport of having ulterior motives and of looking after their own business interests.
Asked if he felt he had won the fight, Beltran told Sky Sports 2: "Yes I do, absolutely."
On why he was not given the nod, the Mexican said: ""Politics, always the same thing in boxing.
"There is money involved, it is business, every time they have a chance to protect their investment they do it.
"They play with the business, they have the power.
"If I got beat I got beat, I've been getting robbed every time.
"It is just so frustrating, there is so much sacrifice. We put ourselves on the line.
"But it is business."
The 23-year-old said he would consider a rematch but called for it to take place in the United States, adding: "I fight anybody but I want to fight in a fair place, I want to fight in America.
"Let's do it in America, I think I deserve a chance.
"Let's go to America and have a fight there - I am a champion."
Turning to the fight, Beltran admitted he knew Burns was injured in some way but he constantly kept returning to his conviction he had won the fight.
"He was trying to be defensive," he added.
"I heard he was going 'agh' with the pain.
"He is very brave.
"But I think I did everything I had to do to win the fight.
"It was horrible, he was holding too much.
"Everything was against me, it always is.
"In the people's eyes I am world champion."
Burns revealed he had suffered a dislocated jaw early in the fight and he told Sky Sports2: "What a fight that was - I take my hat off to Raymundo.
"I don't know how I got through that, I can hardly string two words together out here.
"I knew it was close: I was trying to stick to my jab.
"He was coming in swinging.
"I was worried about getting caught on the jaw again, when I did the pain was incredible.
"I'll get this jaw sorted and maybe me and Raymundo can do it again.
"I would have liked to have gone out there and put on a better performance.
"From the end of the fourth I was more concentrated on not getting my jaw hit.
"I take my hat off to him it was a good shot (in the eighth) but when I got up I was fine."