Pistorius appeared at Pretoria Magistrates' Court on Monday - the day Ms Steenkamp would have turned 30 - and a finalised indictment was served.
At the brief high-profile hearing, the court heard the six-time Paralympic champion will stand trial from March 3 to 20 at North Gauteng High Court in Pretoria.
Magistrate Desmond Nair granted Pistorius bail on the same conditions he has been on since a hearing earlier this year.
The 26-year-old Paralympian is accused of the premeditated murder of Ms Steenkamp on Valentine's night, but claims he shot the 29-year-old after mistaking her for an intruder.
If convicted, he faces a life sentence with a minimum of 25 years in prison.
Pistorius, who won two gold medals and a silver at the 2012 Paralympic Games in London having become the first double amputee to compete at the Olympics earlier in the summer, was obviously emotional as he stood in court ahead of the hearing, and was supported by relatives including brother Carl and sister Aimee, with whom he held hands ahead of the start of the hearing, appearing to pray.
Friends of Ms Steenkamp were also in court.
Ms Steenkamp's parents previously said they are still searching for answers but on Monday her uncle Mike Steenkamp said he has already forgiven Pistorius for killing her.
In an interview on ITV's Daybreak, Mr Steenkamp said the family have coped with her death by concentrating on her life rather than on how she died.
He said the family have not faced the Paralympic champion in court but would want to know the outcome of the case.
"We haven't attended anything and we haven't actually applied our minds to the court case or Oscar's side," he said.
"I know my brother and his wife would like to know at the end of the day why, quite rightly so. And I think that will come out."
Pistorius's hearing lasted just 10 minutes and no mention was made of extra charges relating to allegations of recklessly discharging a firearm - relating to two separate incidents - which were reported to have been added to the indictment.
The double-amputee, nicknamed the 'Blade Runner' because of the prosthetic limbs he uses, will remain on bail until his trial next year.
He is said to have resumed a ''low-key track routine'', according to his family, who said in a statement in June: ''Oscar is not contemplating a formal return to athletics and his training is not aimed at preparing for competition.
''His focus at this time remains entirely on the court case. His family, and those close to him, have encouraged him to spend a few hours a week on the track to assist him in finding the necessary mental and emotional equilibrium to process his trauma and prepare for the trial.''
The athlete was ''overcome with emotion'' when he pulled on his carbon fibre running blades for his first track training since Ms Steenkamp's death, his agent, Peet van Zyl, said, adding that Pistorius described his return to the track as ''bittersweet''.
Ms Steenkamp's family and close friends are reportedly gathering to celebrate her birthday on Monday in Port Elizabeth, the seaside town where she grew up.
The indictment accuses Pistorius of murder, and unlawful possession of ammunition, contrary to Section 90 of the Firearms Control Act.
In a summary, prosecutors allege Pistorius shot Ms Steenkamp, whose cause of death was given as multiple gunshot wounds, four times through the locked bathroom door but said, even if he thought she was an intruder, an ''error in persona'' did not affect the fact he intended to kill someone.
The summary alleges that Ms Steenkamp locked herself in the toilet cubicle next to the main bedroom at Pistorius' house in the early hours of February 14.
It claims the athlete armed himself with his 9mm pistol and fired four shots through the locked door. The cause of his girlfriend's death, which happened just after 3am, is given as ''multiple gunshot wounds''.
Some state witnesses heard a woman scream, followed by ''moments of silence, then heard gunshots and then more screaming'', the summary said.
It added: ''The accused said to witnesses on the scene, that he thought she was an intruder. Even then, the accused shot with the direct intention to kill a person. An error in persona will not affect the intention to kill a human being.''
Some 107 witnesses are listed by the state, including Ms Steenkamp's close friends Desiree, Gina and Kim Myers, as well as Pistorius' sister Aimee and his uncle Arnold.