The discipline is in the midst of a resurgence and 23-year-old is leading the way.
Matching the personal best of 2.41 metres set last month in Lausanne, Bondarenko took the crown and championship record at the Luzhniki Stadium.
That effort saw him hold off the 2.38m efforts of Qatar's Mutaz Essa Barshim and Derek Drouin of Canada, although that did not stop him going for a world record 2.46m.
It was a height too far for Bondarenko and, having crashed into the bar on his final attempt, he jumped straight up and celebrated wildly.
It was one of six events settled on Thursday night, with the most dominant display coming in the women's 400m hurdles.
Zuzana Hejnova romped to victory in a world-leading 52.83 seconds - 1.26 secs ahead of nearest rival Dalilah Muhammad - that once again broke her Czech record.
"It is a fantastic season for me," she said. "I'm still unbeaten.
"I didn't expect to win gold, I just wanted to get a medal. And I improved my personal best and also the national record. To run under 53 seconds - it is fantastic.
"The reason behind my improvement is that I changed coach and now I train with boys, they are faster so they are motivation."
With defending champion Dai Greene out at the semi-final juncture, Trinidad and Tobago's Jehue Gordon took the men's 400m hurdles crown in 47.69s.
Abeba Aregawi of Sweden pipped American Jennifer Simpson to the 1,500m gold medal, while there was a Kenyan one-two in the 3,000km steeplechase as Ezekiel Kemboi finished ahead of Conseslus Kipruto.
The other medal decided on Thursday was in the women's triple jump, with a world-leading effort of 14.85m securing Colombia's Caterine Ibarguen the gold medal - just 4cm ahead of home favourite Ekaterina Koneva.