At the age of just 26, Vettel is now a serious threat to the record haul of seven crowns won by Michael Schumacher, who was six years older by the time he claimed his fourth championship.
Here, we look back on how Vettel made history.
Australian Grand Prix - March 17
From seventh on the grid, Kimi Raikkonen claimed his 20th career win ahead of Ferrari's Fernando Alonso and Vettel, who had started on pole. On his debut with Mercedes, Lewis Hamilton was fifth, while his former team McLaren offered little as Jenson Button was ninth.
Standings: 1 Raikkonen 25; 2 Alonso 18; 3 Vettel 15; 4 Felipe Massa 12; 5 Hamilton 10.
Malaysian Grand Prix - March 24
A highly contentious race as Vettel blatantly ignored team orders not to pass team-mate Mark Webber after the final round of stops, instead going wheel to wheel with the Australian at one stage before taking the chequered flag. Hamilton joined the feuding duo on the podium, whilst an early accident accounted for Alonso.
Standings: 1 Vettel 40; 2 Raikkonen 31; 3 Webber 26; 4 Hamilton 25; 5 Massa 22.
Chinese Grand Prix - April 14
Alonso was flawless in winning for the 31st time in his career, but for the first time in 13 races, with Raikkonen second and Hamilton third after starting on pole. The Briton just managed to keep Vettel at bay in the closing stages, finishing 0.2secs ahead of the German.
Standings: 1 Vettel 52; 2 Raikkonen 49; 3 Alonso 43; 4 Hamilton 40; 5 Massa 30.
Bahrain Grand Prix - April 21
Remarkably, the one-two-three was a repeat of the podium 12 months previously as Vettel was a comfortable winner ahead of Raikkonen and Lotus team-mate Romain Grosjean. Force India's Paul Di Resta equalled his career best result of fourth, with Hamilton a distant fifth and Alonso eighth after an early DRS issue.
Standings: 1 Vettel 77; 2 Raikkonen 67; 3 Hamilton 50; 4 Alonso 47; 5 Webber 32.
Spanish Grand Prix - May 12
Alonso ended a seven-year wait to claim his second Spanish Grand Prix triumph in a race featuring a staggering 82 pit stops. Raikkonen was second for the third consecutive race ahead of Massa and Vettel. Despite a Mercedes one-two in qualifying, serious tyre woes affected Nico Rosberg and Hamilton who were sixth and 12th.
Standings: 1 Vettel 89; 2 Raikkonen 85; 3 Alonso 72; 4 Hamilton 50; 5 Massa 45.
Monaco Grand Prix - May 26
Thirty years after father Keke won in Monaco, Nico Rosberg followed in his dad's footsteps with a lights-to-flag victory in a race that had two safety car periods and a red flag after an accident involving Williams' Pastor Maldonado and Marussia's Max Chilton. Vettel and Webber were second and third, with Hamilton fourth after starting second. Alonso was a lowly seventh and Raikkonen 10th
Standings: 1 Vettel 107; 2 Raikkonen 86; 3 Alonso 78; 4 Hamilton 62; 5 Webber 57.
Canadian Grand Prix - June 9
Starting from pole for the third successive year, Vettel finally claimed the win, and a comfortable one at that as he finished 14 seconds clear of Alonso, the Spaniard just pipping Hamilton to the runner-up spot. Raikkonen again struggled and was a distant ninth.
Standings: 1 Vettel 132; 2 Alonso 96; 3 Raikkonen 88; 4 Hamilton 77; 5 Webber 69.
British Grand Prix - June 30
A chaotic race as there were a number of tyre blowouts, including to Hamilton who led from pole early on but had to settle for fourth behind team-mate Rosberg. Amidst the chaos, Webber and Alonso were second and third, whilst Vettel surprisingly retired with a gearbox issue after 41 laps.
Standings: 1 Vettel 132; 2 Alonso 111; 3 Raikkonen 98; 4 Hamilton 89; 5 Webber 87.
German Grand Prix - July 7
Vettel's disappointment was short lived, but only just as he held off a charging Raikkonen by a second to win his first German Grand Prix. With Pirelli having made changes to their tyres, there was no repeat of the scenes a week earlier.
Alonso was fourth, with Hamilton fifth after again starting on pole.
Standings: 1 Vettel 157; 2 Alonso 123; 3 Raikkonen 116; 4 Hamilton 99; 5 Webber 93.
Hungarian Grand Prix - July 28
Hamilton secured the win he craved with Mercedes, finally converting pole into his fourth victory around the Budapest track. Raikkonen was 11 seconds adrift in second, with the Finn narrowly ahead of Vettel, with Webber fourth and Alonso fifth.
Standings: 1 Vettel 172; 2 Raikkonen 134; 3 Alonso 133; 4 Hamilton 124; 5 Webber 105.
Belgian Grand Prix - August 25
Although on pole for the fourth consecutive race, disrupted at the start by Greenpeace protesters, Hamilton had no answer to Vettel in the opening exchanges as the German went on to cruise to his 31st career win ahead of Alonso and the Briton. As for Raikkonen, he retired for the first time in 39 races with a brake issue.
Standings: 1 Vettel 197; 2 Alonso 151; 3 Hamilton 139; 4 Raikkonen 134; 5 Webber 115.
Italian Grand Prix - September 8
Another breeze for Vettel as he made it six wins in 12 races for the season, with Alonso again second best. Vettel, however, was comprehensively - and unsurprisingly - booed by the Ferrari fans on the podium. As for Hamilton and Raikkonen, their faint title hopes faded with ninth and 11th respectively.
Standings: 1 Vettel 222; 2 Alonso 169; 3 Hamilton 141; 4 Raikkonen 134; 5 Webber 130.
Singapore - September 22
As comprehensive a victory as you can get as Vettel triumphed by a whopping 32 seconds from Alonso, who was runner-up for a third straight race, with Raikkonen, Rosberg and Hamilton further adrift. Yet more boos, however, greeted Vettel on the podium.
Standings: 1 Vettel 247; 2 Alonso 187; 3 Hamilton 151; 4 Raikkonen 149; 5 Webber 130.
Korean Grand Prix - October 6
A fourth successive win for Vettel, and a third at Korea as the 26-year-old survived two safety car periods to triumph ahead of Raikkonen and Grosjean, with Hamilton fifth and Alonso losing touch in the standings as he was only sixth.
Standings: 1 Vettel 272; 2 Alonso 195; 3 Raikkonen 167; 4 Hamilton 161; 5 Webber 130.
Japanese Grand Prix - October 13
Vettel makes it a personal best five successive wins, making a two-stop strategy work compared to three for Webber who has to settle for second ahead of Grosjean and Alonso, the latter doing just enough to keep the champagne on ice for another fortnight. Hamilton retires for the first time this year with floor damage sustained from a first-lap puncture.
Standings: 1 Vettel 297; Alonso 207, 3 Raikkonen 177, 4 Hamilton 161, 5 Webber 148,
Indian Grand Prix - October 27
There was simply no stopping Vettel and his joy of six successive wins secured the world championship. He was totally dominant - 30 seconds ahead of the chasing pack - and with an unassailable 115-point lead in the standings. Rosberg and Grosjean completed the podium.
Standings: 1 Vettel 322; 2 Alonso 207; 3 Raikkonen 183; 4 Hamilton 169; 5 Webber 148.