The McLaren star signalled at the Nurburgring that he and his team were finally able to compete with pacesetters Red Bull during Saturday qualifying, with Hamilton "buzzing" after qualifying second for the German Grand Prix.
He went on to score his second win of the season, but seven days on it was a rather more subdued Hamilton who qualified second to Sebastian Vettel at the Hungaroring.
The 2008 world champion, who is looking to score back-to-back wins for the first time in 13 months, felt there was a real opportunity to relegate Red Bull from the top grid slot for the first time this season.
He must also start the race from the dirty, dusty side of the grid as he looks to usurp Vettel, whose pole in Hungary was his eighth in 11 races this year.
However, the last three winners have started on that side of the track, including himself in 2009 when he lined up fourth.
"It's going to be important to start like a rocket man because you can't overtake here, apart from in the pit stops, so it's vital to have an even better start if I'm to win," said Hamilton.
"But I'm not thinking I should have been on pole, although it was a possibility because we've been quick this weekend.
"I knew it was going to be very close, and if I'm honest I knew it was going to be difficult to be ahead of Sebastian.
"But I'm positive ahead of tomorrow. Jenson (Button) qualified third, and he is in a nice sweet spot ready for tomorrow for the start down to turn one.
"I'm just massively happy we're in the fight because not so long ago we were behind the Red Bulls and Ferraris, and now we're splitting them.
"We have both been saying how nice it is to drive the car, and we hope it will continue to be like this for the rest of the season."
Vettel held his finger aloft in trademark fashion after taking pole, with Button playfully trying to grab it so tired he has become of seeing it this season.
"He said he wanted to bite my finger off!" said Vettel.
"Yeah, he put it up and I almost grabbed it out of sight of the cameras. I was going for it," added Button.
"I was actually just going to straighten it up because it's always leaning."
It was too late, though, as a confident Vettel made good use of his team breaking the overnight curfew for the first time this season.
Teams are not allowed to work on cars between the hours of 2am-8am, although have four exemptions in case of exceptional circumstances.
With Red Bull determined to keep their noses in front, mechanics are understood to have made wholesale changes.
"They got back around 5am, but it's the best way to show we made an improvement," said Vettel, who currently holds a 77-point lead in the drivers' championship.
"We changed a lot on the car overnight, with the boys working pretty hard, not getting much sleep.
"So to have a result like this, it's the best way to say thanks and I'm very happy. I am much more comfortable in the car, back to where we have to be.
"If you feel confident you are able to get more out of yourself and you are more consistent, which is a good sign and very important for the race."
After securing his best grid slot for five races, and his best ever at the Hungaroring, Button is well placed ahead of his 200th GP start.
"Qualifying has been my issue of late, which has made it difficult for the race, so it's nice to be positioned well," said Button.
"When you are that close to the front you have to go for the win."
Felipe Massa outqualified Ferrari team-mate Fernando Alonso for the first time this year to start fourth, with the Spaniard fifth.
After starting on pole at the last two races, Mark Webber lines up a lowly sixth in his Red Bull, his second-worst grid position in his last 22 races.