Taylor, who went on to win a 16th world title, reacted angrily as his opponent tried to shake his hand following the nerve-wracking 6-4 victory.
The incident will be examined by the Darts Regulation Authority, and if it's concluded the player has brought the game into disrepute, then a financial penalty is most likely.
A spokesman for the PDC said: "As with any incident like this, it has been referred to the Darts Regulation Authority.
"They will decide if there's been any breach of the rules and whether there should be a punishment."
Taylor, who is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, apologised to Van Barneveld following the altercation at Alexandra Palace and claimed his reaction was made "in the heat of the moment".
Speaking the day after the incident, he said : "Raymond's a big lad and has a strong handshake. When he pulled me, it hurt me.
"I reacted wrongly and I'm ashamed of that because I really like Raymond. I've contacted Raymond to apologise and hopefully we can put it behind us now.
"I'm gutted about what happened. It's upset a lot of people and it's also upset me.
"I'm very close to Raymond. He's a great competitor and it was something that happened in the heat of the moment."