The biennial match between Europe and the United States will take place at Gleneagles in Perthshire.
Europe are the holders of the tournament, having triumphed at Celtic Manor in south Wales last October.
That event went into a fourth day for the first time in the tournament's history due to adverse weather.
There was high wind and heavy rain in central Scotland on Tuesday as the announcement was made.
It will be the 40th staging of the Ryder Cup and the second time the event has been held in Scotland. In 1973, the contest was played at Muirfield in East Lothian.
Scotland's First Minister was present at the announcement.
He said: "As the home of golf, Scotland is well placed to host the best Ryder Cup in the competition's history when it arrives at Gleneagles in 2014.
"The arrangements for this spectacular event are well under way and I am delighted to announce that the 2014 event will be held over the weekend of September 26-28.
"I am also delighted to have seen for myself the many exciting changes that are being made to improve this already outstanding golf course.
"As well as the hi-tech efforts to reduce water on the greens, the Ryder Cup teams can expect many of the changes - proposed by Jack Nicklaus - to provide a sterner test as they seek glory during the competition."
Salmond estimates the Scottish economy will benefit by up to #100million from the event, which is to take place in the same year as Glasgow will host the Commonwealth Games.
The 2012 Ryder Cup will take place at the Medinah Country Club near Chicago next September.