Dyson was joint second after 36 holes at Lake Malaren when he was disqualified for signing for an incorrect score in the second round.
The 35-year-old failed to add a two-shot penalty to his card after an incident on the eighth hole, when he touched the line of his putt after marking his ball, appearing to flatten a spike mark.
Having reviewed the incident, senior European Tour officials concluded that an investigation into an alleged "serious breach" of the Tour's code of behaviour was required.
Dyson will appear before a three-person disciplinary panel at Wentworth on Thursday morning. The panel will be chaired by Ian Mill QC and made up of an experienced sports administrator and an ex-member of the European Tour or current European Senior Tour player.
According to the publication 'Who's Who Legal: Sports & Entertainment 2013', Mr Mill is "quite brilliant" and his "sports dispute track record is second to none."
Dyson's disqualification came in the first of the inaugural Final Series events at the end of the 2013 season. He did not play in either of the following two tournaments, thereby ending his chances of finishing in the top 60 on the Race to Dubai and qualifying for the season-ending DP World Tour Championship in Dubai.
The six-time European Tour winner returned to action at the start of the 2014 season in November, finishing joint 52nd in the South African Open and then joint third in the Alfred Dunhill Championship last week.
Dyson's only comment on the incident came via a statement released by his management company on October 31, which read: "I have been informed of the procedure being put in place by the Tour following my actions during the second round of the BMW Masters in Shanghai last week and am perfectly happy to co-operate with the investigation by the independent disciplinary panel.
"I would like to say at this stage that I have never deliberately broken the rules either on this occasion or in the past. It was only after I was shown the replay of my action after marking the ball on the eighth green during the second round that I realised what I had done and that I was in breach. I immediately accepted that I should be disqualified.
"My action was in no way a deliberate act with the intention of breaking the rules. It was simply an accidental mistake which I have no reservations in apologising for and particularly to my fellow professionals and the Tour for any inconvenience and embarrassment unintentionally caused."
If Dyson is found guilty of a serious breach of the Tour's code of behaviour, sanctions range from "a reprimand, a censure, a fine, a suspension of membership, a suspension from participation in one or more tournaments or for a given period, or expulsion from the European Tour, or otherwise as the panel shall determine."
Dyson will have 28 days in which to appeal the verdict.