The visitors made a dream start through Dejan Damjanovic's 12th-minute strike but Robert Lewandowski equalised soon after.
It remained that way until the final whistle, despite the best efforts of Poland, who were frustrated by Montenegro goalkeeper Mladen Bozovic as well as poor finishing in the closing stages.
Branko Brnovic's side also had chances to maintain their two-point lead atop the standings but they may be happy to walk away with a point from the Warsaw National Stadium.
Montenegro now top the group on goal difference alone after England hammered Moldova and their clash with Roy Hodgson's men next month may prove crucial in the race to claim the automatic qualification berth for Brazil next year.
In a frenetic opening in which both sides' goalkeepers were called into action, it was Montenegro who drew first blood when Damjanovic drilled home on the edge of the area.
However, Poland hit back in the 16th minute, with Lewandowski, who had only scored twice for his national side since Euro 2012, firing past Bozovic from inside the area.
Both sides continued to show attacking intent, yet off-target long range strikes were the closest either team came to breaking the stalemate.
Elsad Zverotic did at least force Poland goalkeeper into action with his effort from just outside the area, while at the other end, Bozovic made a decent save from Sobota.
Piotr Zielinski missed the target with a close-range header, while Jakub Blaszczykowski fired over the bar as Poland made a bright start after the interval.
Blaszczykowski was denied by a crucial block from Vladimir Bozovic, while at the other end Artur Boruc had to tip over Damjanovic's 25-yard effort.
But it was the hosts who continued to look more threatening with Blaszczykowski denied by a magnificent save from Bozovic, who then kept out Grzegorz Krychowiak's long range effort to earn a point for Montenegro.