Pescara turned to their former defender after Giovanni Stroppa resigned in the wake of a 1-0 defeat at Siena, a result that saw them drop into the bottom three.
Zdenek Zeman, who has guided Roma to sixth place, is idolised at the Stadio Adriatico having restored Pescara to the top flight as Serie B champions at the end of last season.
Bergodi represented Pescara for five years from 1984 and also remains a popular figure on the east coast.
At his unveiling, the 48-year-old said: "I will give it my all. I am someone who never gives up and I am very determined.
"I know the team well and I believe we have the means to avoid relegation.
"I am very excited and I want to thank the president for giving me the opportunity to return to the city that loved me.
"It is a great source of pride to be back here as a coach."
Marco Capuano and Damiano Zanon will play no part in Bergodi's debut as a Serie A coach having picked up red cards against Siena, while Giuseppe Colucci and Manuele Blasi miss out through injury.
Roma have similar personnel concerns as Zeman returns to his former club, with prolific attacking midfielder Erik Lamela out of action for three weeks.
The Argentinian had hit seven goals in the six games preceding Monday's 2-0 victory over Torino, but an ankle injury has put paid to his involvement at Pescara.
Vice-captain Daniele De Rossi serves the second game of a three-match suspension for his actions in the Rome derby and Pablo Osvaldo is suffering with a gastrointestinal complaint.
Roma legend Paulo Roberto Falcao came out in support of Zeman this week, saying: "Every coach needs a bit of time and Zeman needs more than most given his preferred style.
"They play a very attacking game and the coach needs time to get the players playing the way he would like."