The 43-year-old was handed the lengthy ban by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) for allegedly failing to report two incidents of match-fixing during his time in charge of Siena.
But despite appealing the verdict in person at the Federal Court of Justice on Monday, the 43-year-old has been denied the chance to return to coaching Juve for Saturday's opening Serie A game against Parma.
An FIGC statement read: "The Federal Court of Justice can confirm the 10-month disqualification for Antonio Conte."
Conte's implication in the Calcioscommesse scandal involved two Serie B matches that took place in the 2010-11 season.
The statement continued: "It was decided to acquit Conte for his role in the Novara-Siena game, but the 10-month disqualification stands as a disciplinary commission sanction concerning Albinoleffe-Siena."
Having considered the appeals of 23 individuals and seven clubs in total, the FIGC revealed on Wednesday in which cases they had decided to amend or uphold the original verdicts.
Conte's assistant Angelo Alessio, who worked alongside the former Italy international at Siena, has had his suspension reduced from eight months to six.
Juventus players Leonardo Bonucci and Simone Pepe, and ex-Bari players Nicola Belmonte and Salvatore Masiello all saw their acquittals upheld.
FIGC prosecutors had sought a three-and-a-half-year ban for Bonucci, who was playing for Bari at the time, and one-year ban for Pepe, who was with Udinese.
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Marco Di Vaio and Daniele Portanova had each been suspended for six months for their alleged failure to report match-fixing in the Bologna-Bari match of May 2011, but on Wednesday Di Vaio was acquitted.
Former Siena defender Emanuele Pesoli, who chained himself to the gates of the FIGC for four days in protest against his three-year ban, saw his suspension upheld.
Lecce's demotion to the Lega Pro was also confirmed but Grosseto, who were originally handed the same fate, have now been spared relegation.
Juve have declared their intention to enter a second appeal over Conte's ban at the Italian Olympic Committee's tribunal in September.
Technical director Massimo Carrera will remain in charge of the league champions for Saturday's visit of Roberto Donadoni's Parma.