The Turin giants ended the previous two campaigns in seventh place and out of European football contention.
However, the Bianconeri's fortunes have changed since Conte took over the reins last summer.
Juventus are through to the Coppa Italia final on May 20 and remain in the scudetto race with nine Serie A games remaining.
"The secret of our success is the ambition our coach has," Buffon said to Corriere dello Sport. "He has shown that ambition since day one and has combined that with hard work."
Buffon believes Conte is responsible for the club's improvement, hailing the former Juventus player's philosophy and mentality which he has brought to Juve.
"Conte has brought a new mentality to the club," he said. "He has pushed us to sweat, to find strength and to undergo hard work in order to cancel out the last two disappointing campaigns.
"He brings that winning mindset to the club every day based on his own hard-working, committed character."
The Italy international is nevertheless surprised by his side's unbeaten run this season.
"I certainly didn't expect us to have the campaign we have had so far, although I did hope we could do well," Buffon said.
"Now we have a Coppa Italia final to look forward to and we will not give up in the scudetto race."
Juventus are second in the standings, four points behind league leaders AC Milan and host Napoli on Sunday night.