Ranieri was unveiled by the Nerazzurri after being confirmed as successor to the sacked Gian Piero Gasperini.
"I feel so many emotions," Ranieri said.
"I've done this job simply for the emotions it gives you.
"I am very proud to be part of the Nerazzurri family."
The veteran coach signed a two-year contract with Inter and inherits a team that is in the relegation zone, with just one point from their opening three games.
The club decided to dismiss Gasperini after Tuesday's 3-1 defeat at promoted Novara - Inter's fourth loss in five games this season.
"We must recover confidence and self-belief," Ranieri said.
"We have to get results as soon as possible."
The 59-year-old had been out of a job since leaving Roma earlier this year and admitted he was surprised to be chosen by Inter.
"I have to admit that I didn't expect this," he said. "My mind was set on going abroad but when Inter call you, you can only be happy and proud.
"I can only say that I love to work, then it's destiny that puts you in one place or another.
"And I am happy to be here now."
The former Chelsea boss has struggled in the past to win silverware, with his only trophies a Coppa Italia in 1996 with Fiorentina and a Copa del Rey with Valencia three years later.
However, he has plenty of experience in Serie A.
Ranieri took over Parma midway through the 2006-07 campaign and managed to steer the relegation-threatened club to safety.
The following year he led Juventus to a third-place finish just one season after the Turin giants had been competing in Serie B.
After being sacked by Juve the following May, Ranieri was put in charge of a struggling Roma six months later and guided his hometown club to a runners-up finish in Serie A behind Inter.
"This is the beginning of a new journey and to win at Inter would be a splendid thing for me," Ranieri said.
Inter, who finished runners-up in the league last season to AC Milan, had established themselves as the leading side in Italy with a run of five league titles under Roberto Mancini and then Jose Mourinho.
"A year and a half ago, these players were champions and I believe in their will to react," Ranieri said.
"They have fallen but the important thing is for them to get up again and fight.
"I want to see that united team that never gave up whenever my teams played against them.
"The important thing is to get results now.
"These players are used to winning and have to get back to winning."
Ranieri's first game in charge will be at Bologna tomorrow before Inter travel to Russia to face CSKA Moscow next week.
When asked about his preferred tactics, Ranieri said: "I am not a slave of a system of play.
"I always put a team on the pitch with the thought of winning a game and that's it."