The 50-year-old Trentino was originally dismissed in October and replaced by Luigi De Canio but results did not improve for Serie A's bottom side and he returned to the Stadio Angelo Massimino dugout on January 15.
However, he delivered only one win from the 13 matches of his second stint and a 2-1 home loss to Torino on Sunday afternoon was the seventh reverse from the Sicilian club's last eight games.
With only six games of the season remaining, Catania are seven points shy of 17th-placed Bologna and safety.
A statement published on ilcalciodicatania.it announced the promotion of academy coach Maurizio Pellegrino - who managed the club in Serie C between 2001 and 2003 - to supervise first-team matters.
Maran first took the top job in south-east Sicily in June 2012 and promptly led Catania to a record-breaking eighth-placed finish - the Elefanti accrued 56 points in the top flight for the first time in their history.
His second campaign at the helm began with four defeats in five games, though, and the former defender was sacked in mid-October after delivering only five points from eight matches.
His successor De Canio - the former Napoli, QPR and Genoa boss - fared no better and left the club in January in the wake of a 4-1 Coppa Italia defeat to Serie B side Siena.
Following Sunday's reverse at home to Torino, Maran told the Gazzetta dello Sport: "We cannot hide or pretend any more. To say that we are saddened is an understatement.
"It's a sad day as we know that the race to survive is now more difficult and the margins have been reduced further.
"We have to keep alight the flame of hope."
Sixty-eight-year-old Pellegrino takes charge of Catania for the first time at the top level as the islanders visit AC Milan next Sunday, while games against Sampdoria, Hellas Verona, Roma, Bologna and Atalanta complete the run-in.