The 26-year-old has not featured for his country for two years, having endured a long spell on the sidelines due to successive anterior cruciate ligament injuries on his right knee.
Rossi has now been included in Italy coach Cesare Prandelli's group again - and made no secret of his joy at hearing the news.
"I am delighted and proud to return to wear the Azzurri colours," he said on his official website, www.gr22.it.
"I want to thank coach Prandelli for the call-up and I will do all I can on the pitch to repay his trust."
Since recovering from injury over the summer, Rossi has scored five goals in seven Serie A games for Fiorentina.
"He is a player that has gone through two difficult years and is returning to play at a very high level," Prandelli said. "I have called him up because I want to make him feel part of this group."
It is unclear whether Rossi will play a part in Friday's Group B qualifier against Denmark in Copenhagen, however, after he sustained a minor knock during Sunday's goalless draw at Lazio.
"Rossi left the pitch 15 minutes prior to the end of the game," Prandelli said. "We want to see what his condition is. We will evaluate it before deciding to use him.
"We will not take unnecessary risks. For me, it's good enough that he is here. What interests me is to make Rossi feel a part of this team."
Fiorentina have applauded Prandelli's decision to reward Rossi with a return to the Azzurri set-up.
"As soon as Rossi found out that he was returning to the national team, he expressed great satisfaction," Fiorentina sporting director Daniele Prade said to www.acffiorentina.it.
"We are very happy for him and proud to be the club that has brought him back to play in Italy."
Fiorentina signed Rossi this summer from Spanish side Villarreal in a deal worth a reported 11million euros.
Rossi had previously last played in Serie A in 2007, when he joined Parma on loan from Manchester United.
The United States-born striker has netted six goals in 27 appearances for Italy.
The Italians have already booked their place at next year's World Cup finals in Brazil and head into Friday's qualifier in Copenhagen unbeaten in Group B.
Prandelli's side end their qualifying campaign against Armenia in Naples four days later.
Roma midfielder Daniele De Rossi will miss the double header through injury, the Italian federation (FIGC) confirmed on Tuesday.
De Rossi was sent home from Italy's training camp in Coverciano, Florence, after tests done on Monday afternoon revealed adductor tendinitis in his left leg.
The 30-year-old, who has featured in six of Italy's eight Group B games, sustained the problem during Saturday's 3-0 triumph at Inter Milan.
Meanwhile, in-form Roma captain Francesco Totti has not ruled out playing for Italy again.
The 37-year-old has led the Giallorossi to seven wins in as many games in Serie A, and Prandelli has said that he may look to call up the forward for next summer's showpiece event in Brazil.
Totti, who retired from the national team shortly after the Azzurri's 2006 World Cup triumph in Germany, said to Gazzetta dello Sport: "For the time being I'm thinking only about Roma.
"In the spring I will see what my physical condition is and we will decide.
"But you can never say never."
Totti has scored nine goals in 58 appearances for Italy.
Prandelli revealed on Monday that he would try to tempt Totti out of retirement if his sensational form continues up to next summer.
"Totti is in fantastic form," the Azzurri coach said.
"His condition right now does make you reflect. If the World Cup was around the corner, I would have no doubts and would absolutely call him up.
"But we will evaluate the player's condition one month prior to the World Cup."
Prandelli added: "I have not spoken with him (Totti). There is no point in doing so eight months before the tournament.
"The priority is to arrive at the World Cup with 23 players that have to be in great condition.
"I believe the athletic form of the players will be crucial for the World Cup."