Club president Sandro Rosell and director of the football Andoni Zubizarreta will address the media at 8.30pm local time on Friday night, the Catalans announced on their official website.
Vilanova only took over from Pep Guardiola last summer, but missed a chunk of the season after undergoing treatment for cancer in the United States.
The 44-year-old had a tumour removed from his throat in late 2011 but suffered a relapse a year later and underwent another operation on his parotid gland on December 20 before beginning a course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in New York.
After two months in the United States he returned to Barcelona in April, and speaking to the media for the first time since his treatment he said: "I feel with desire and with strength I want to continue next season."
In the final months of the season Vilanova made two more trips back to America for follow-up tests and to undergo further treatment.
The second of those trips was scheduled for this summer, but was brought forward to May after Barcelona clinched their fourth La Liga title in five years with three games to go.
Barcelona announced on Friday night on their official Twitter feed that the training session scheduled for the evening had been cancelled.
Reports in Spain suggest Joan Francesc Ferrer, known as Rubi, could replace Vilanova in a caretaker capacity.
Rubi joined Barca's coaching staff last month as an assistant to Vilanova and Jordi Roura - who took charge of the first team when Vilanova was absent last season.
Rubi was head coach of Girona last term and led the club to the Segunda Division play-offs, where they lost to Almeria to miss out on a place in the top flight for the first time in their history.
The 43-year-old Rubi penned a one-year contract with Barca with the option for a second season and took up his post earlier this week as the first team reported back for pre-season training.
More to follow...