Alves went under the knife at Barcelona Hospital on Wednesday evening after suffering the injury in training earlier on Wednesday.
The 29-year-old Brazil full-back has been ruled out of the Copa del Rey final against Athletic Bilbao on May 25 - Pep Guardiola's final match as Barca coach.
"The player underwent surgery this afternoon [Wednesday] to correct his fractured clavicle after sustaining his injury this morning [Wednesday] during the first team's training session," read a statement on club website fcbarcelona.com.
"[Club] doctors Ricard Pruna and Carles Torrens, in collaboration with Mutua Egarsat, performed surgery on Dani Alves' broken clavicle.
"The player will be out of action for six to eight weeks."
Alves' absence comes as a further setback to Guardiola's bid to sign off his four-year tenure with a 14th trophy, having already lost the services of fellow defenders Carles Puyol (knee) and Eric Abidal (liver transplant) for next week's final.