Both sides failed to find the net in the goalless draw at Estadio La Rosaleda in a largely frustrating match in which both sides created several chances but converted none.
The result leaves Valencia six points adrift of Sevilla, while the point earned in the draw saw Malaga move about Osasuna into 13th place on goal difference.
The game started with a sense of promise as Roque Santa Cruz had a first-minute effort caught by Valencia keeper Diego Alves with Samu also testing him shortly afterwards with a right-footed volley from the left of the area.
Duda then had a great chance to put Malaga ahead in the 17th minute from a free-kick after Jeremy Mathieu fouled Samu. The midfielder curled his strike from 25-yards, forcing Alves to tip it around his post.
Malaga stopper Willy Caballero made his first real save just before the half-hour mark when he kept out Daniel Parejo's 25-yard free-kick, before responding quickly to deny Jonas on the rebound.
After the break, the game followed a similar pattern, with limited chances unable to be finished off by either side.
Parejo saw a stroke blocked by Caballero in the 53rd minute from the middle of the area, with Santa Cruz denied by Alves again at the other end.
Both sides squandered chances with some off-target efforts before Alves kept Valencia in the match with a brilliant save to deny Pablo Perez's 76th-minute header.
Helder Postiga tried his luck from distance in stoppage time, but the Valencia substitute striker's effort missed the left post, as the game ended goalless.