The 27-year-old joined the Hoops from Sunderland in 2011 but, after impressing last season, he has struggled for form this term.
Ferdinand has made 16 appearances in all competitions for QPR this campaign but has now swapped west London for Turkey.
The defender completed his medical with Bursaspor on Monday afternoon and Press Association Sport understands the loan has been agreed with a view to a permanent move.
The Turkish side already employ England international goalkeeper Scott Carson and signed Stoke midfielder Maurice Edu on loan earlier this month.
Ferdinand is not the only player to have departed QPR on loan on Tuesday.
Rob Hulse has also left the Rs for the rest of the season, linking up with npower Championship play-off hopefuls Millwall.
The 33-year-old spent time on loan with Charlton earlier this campaign and could make his Lions debut against Barnsley tonight.
QPR have also allowed 20-year-old Michael Harriman to extend his loan spell with Wycombe until the end of 2012-13 season.