Aguero's last-gasp strike against QPR on the final day of the Barclays Premier League season clinched City's first title since 1968, and the Argentinian is determined to add Europe's biggest prize to the club's growing list of honours.
City's maiden Champions League campaign last season ended in elimination in the group stage, and the 23-year-old says an improved showing next term is a minimum requirement.
"That was the first league title I have won in my career - now I want to win more," Aguero told The Times.
"It is important for the club that we do well in the Champions League next season. That is crucial if we are to show we are a power on the world stage.
"I just want to keep winning next season."
Establishing squad harmony would go a long way towards helping City boss Roberto Mancini achieve the club's European ambitions, after so much of the Italian's energy in the season just completed was spent firefighting misdemeanours of the likes of Carlos Tevez and Mario Balotelli.
Aguero, however, insists the problems inside the City camp have been exaggerated.
He said: "We have always stood together. There is no problem with the squad, no lack of cohesion, anything like that. We are not fighting all the time.
"There is great spirit between the players. There is no better proof of that than what happened at the end of the season."
Reflecting on his winner in the title-clinching 3-2 win against QPR earlier this month, he added: "Scoring [against QPR] was the best moment of my career, of course."
Aguero plans on playing a leading role in that quest, with their no desire on his part to head for pastures new.
"My future is at Manchester City," the 23-year-old striker toldThe Times.
"I want to stay here. My contract has four years left to run and I see myself being here at least as long as that.
"There are always rumours, but there is no truth in them. I am not thinking about moving to Real Madrid or anywhere else.
"City have treated me very well from the very first day I arrived, I'm settled at the club and my family are happy in Manchester, and I want to stay.
"I can win everything that I want to win here. We have won one title now and we can go on to win more.
"Once you have one, you are desperate for the second, the third, the fourth, and it will be the same with us. We won the Premier League title this season. Why shouldn't we believe we can win it in years to come, too?"