The 23-year-old midfielder was booked for the 10th time this season after clattering into Cheick Tiote after just 40 second, incurring a two-match suspension in the process, and his red card for foul and abusive language towards the referee after the final whistle earned him another two.
Black Cats forward Stephane Sessegnon's 58th-minute dismissal for violent conduct after he elbowed Tiote will cost the 27-year-old Benin international three games on the sidelines.
A spokesman said: "Stephane Sessegnon and Lee Cattermole have been handed three- and four-game bans respectively.
"Lee Cattermole will miss Sunderland's next four senior games after being sent off in Sunday's Tyne-Wear derby at the Sports Direct Arena.
"The midfielder was shown a straight red card for foul and abusive language towards a match official in the moments following the full-time whistle on Tyneside.
"The offence automatically carries a two-match ban, with another two games added after Cattermole reached 10 bookings for an early foul on Cheick Tiote.
"Meanwhile, Stephane Sessegnon will serve a three-match ban after being dismissed in the second half following a clash with Tiote."
Both men will miss the FA Cup quarter-final trip to Everton and the league games against Liverpool and Blackburn either side of it, while Cattermole will also sit out the home clash with QPR on March 24.
Referee Mike Dean endured a trying afternoon on Tyneside, issuing eight yellow cards and two red and also sending Newcastle's goalkeeping coach Andy Woodman to the stands at half-time.
He also awarded two penalties, the first of which was converted by Black Cats striker Nicklas Bendtner, but was cancelled out in injury time by Magpies substitute Shola Ameobi after Simon Mignolet had saved Demba Ba's spot-kick.