The 50-year-old oversaw Chelsea's 3-1 Premier League defeat of Manchester United at Stamford Bridge on Sunday before attending a Football Writers' Association dinner at the Savoy Hotel where he was honoured with an award.
He then went under the surgeon's knife on Monday.
Chelsea stated on Twitter: "Jose Mourinho today underwent a minor arthroscopic procedure on a long-standing elbow complaint. He will return to work tomorrow."
The operation was performed by doctor Didier Fontes in Paris.
Mourinho may have to wear a sling as a precaution for a few days, but the operation came in a relatively lean period in Chelsea's fixture schedule.
Chelsea next play Stoke at Stamford Bridge in the FA Cup fourth round on Sunday, before a midweek contest at home to West Ham and another Premier League clash at Manchester City.
Mourinho was in fine fettle on Sunday evening after a result which took his side to within two points of leaders Arsenal and a point of City.
He is settled in England after returning to Chelsea following a near six-year absence last summer.
"Without love and happiness, I could not do my job," Mourinho said.
"The best thing football gave me was to make a decision about my future.
"Some managers go where they have to go, where the club comes, and sometimes it is not the best move, not what they want to do, but they go.
"I sat down with my wife and family, and said 'Where is the best place for us? Where can we be happier as a family? To be happy as a manager and enjoy more the family and life socially?'
"We decided England, after that, for the situation to be perfect it would be Chelsea and I was lucky because the door was open for me."
The self-proclaimed Special One won Chelsea's first championship in 50 years in his first season in 2005 and successfully defended the crown in 2006, after being appointing in the weeks after he led Porto to the 2004 Champions League title.
A trophy-laden spell at Inter Milan - where he won the European Cup for a second time - was followed by a stint at Real Madrid which was successful and fractious in equal measure before he rejoined Chelsea last June on a four-year contract.
Mourinho would love to continue his career at Chelsea for "many, many years" yet, and indicated he had no intentions of ever leaving the Premier League.
He added: "The principles you have in relation to football and life are absolutely amazing.
"I love this Chelsea Football Club, which has been the only club to have ever sacked me, we as a family belong to you (in) England.
"I belong to Chelsea, Chelsea belongs to me, and hopefully we will stay for many, many years."
Mourinho said: "It is not a threat, but if you sack me, I will stay in England and go to another club, a possible rival."