The 27-year-old Italian, who had been replaced by Adam Lallana at half-time during the 1-1 Barclays Premier League draw, faces a Football Association charge in connection with an incident which saw the occupants of both benches clash deep into injury-time at St James' Park.
Magpies goalkeeping coach Andy Woodman, who was sent to the stands after the melee, has been charged with improper conduct. Both men have until next Monday to respond.
An FA statement said: "Newcastle United coach Andy Woodman and Southampton player Dani Osvaldo have both been charged by the FA following an incident in the recent fixture between the two clubs.
"Osvaldo has been charged with violent conduct in relation to the incident in the 94th minute of the game at St James' Park on Saturday, December 14.
"Meanwhile, Woodman, who was sent to the stands following the incident, has been charged with improper conduct. Neither club will face charges.
"Both parties have until December 23 to respond to the charges."
The two benches clashed after Newcastle defender Massadio Haidara was fouled by Morgan Schneiderlin in a stormy conclusion to a hard-fought game.
Referee Mike Jones had earlier been left with a bloody nose after being caught accidentally by Magpies midfielder Moussa Sissoko.
Woodman and opposite number Toni Jimenez were sent to the stands after order was restored, and managers Alan Pardew and Mauricio Pochettino later played the incident down with the former describing it as "panto season" and the latter expressing his regret that it had happened at all.
However, Osvaldo's alleged involvement only became clear later after the FA moved to deal with the unsavoury scenes.
The Argentina-born Italy international frontman joined the Saints in a £15million switch from Roma in August and has scored three goals to date for the club, including a stunning equaliser against Manchester City earlier this month.